The lines of the Torres Vedras were lines of forts secretly built by the British from around September 1809-1812 to protect Lisbon during the Peninsular War. The landscape was remodelled wholesale to make it more defensible. Every approach was covered by at least one fort, and all forts were mutually supporting. Trench-lines covered some of […]
The Battle of Marathon saw wo entirely antithetical military and political traditions: cavalry, archery, and light-armed troops versus heavy infantry; coerced subjects against free militia; wealthy imperial invaders turned away by pedestrian defenders of farm and family. The verdict of Marathon proved that far from being rudimentary, the introduction of a true heavy-infantry militia and […]
Map of the Battle of Maiwand, 27 July 1880: the decisive action of the Second Afghan War. General Burrows’ little army of 2,700 men was caught in the open by a force around seven times the size. The Afghan warlord Ayub Khan played his advantages to the full, threatening the ranks of the British line, […]
The Battle of Wakefield was a maor battle in the War of the Roses. It took place at Sandal Magna near Wakefield, in West Yorkshire on 30th December 1460 The opposing forces were a Lancastrian army, loyal to the captive King Henry VI on one side, and the army of Richard, Duke of York, the […]
A map of Taranto Harbour on 11 November 1940, showing the position of the Italian ships, the habour defences, and the direction of the British torpedo bomber attack waves.
As every Scotsman knows, in 1314, at midsummer, the might of the English army came to grief in the boggy ground below Stirling Castle. Heroic charges were not enough; the packed infantry formations of the Scots triumphed. The King of Scots, Robert Bruce, had not wanted to risk battle, but in May his brother Edward […]
In 1302, the townspeople of Flanders rebelled against the French, laying siege to the castle at Courtrai. The French sent an army of some 10,000 men, commanded by Robert of Artois, to deal with them. Rumours spread that the invading army was committing dreadful atrocities in order to terrorize the Flemings, killing the sick, women, […]
It was the first time since 390 BC that the city of Rome had fallen to a barbarian enemy. It shocked the world. It presaged the collapse of the greatest empire of antiquity. The major movements of Visigothic hordes under Alaric and his immediate successor, Ataulf, between AD 395 and 415. To read the full […]
The first aircraft to be deployed in the war swooped to strafe the Afghans fleeing across the frontier after their defeat. A map of the Third Afghan War of 1919 showing the deployment of force on either side and the locations of the principal engagements. Taken from our series on Britain’s four Afghan Wars. To read […]
The first part of our Afghanistan series begins in Issue 1, with an in-depth chronicling of the British army’s disastrous retreat from Kabul. This exclusive map details the stages of the retreat, and features a condensed account of the massacre of the Anglo-Indian army.