Persia

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Afghanistan: graveyard of armies

A huge, mountainous, landlocked Central Asian state, Afghanistan has defied invaders for 2,500 years. Jules Stewart takes a look at the country’s military longue durée.     Taken in historical context, the 13-year presence of NATO combat troops in Afghanistan amounted to scarcely a footnote to centuries of foreign military intervention in the country. From the […]

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Rise of the Spartans: Timeline

Journey from the original Olympic games to the defeat of the Spartan juggernaut in this extract from our latest 15-page special on the rise of Sparta.   c.776 BC: Traditional foundation date for Olympic Games c.750 BC: Homer’s epics The Iliad and The Odyssey composed c.700 BC: Sparta conquers Messenia c.650 BC: Messenian Revolt followed by Spartan Reconquest […]

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