Born: 1 June 1907, Earlsdon, Coventry Occupation: RAF Engineer Officer Awards: KBE (1948), CBE (1944), CB (1947), Louis E. Levy Medal (1956), Order of Merit (1986), Fellow of the Royal Society (1986), Honorary Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society (1986), Commander of the Legion of Merit (1946) Died: 9 August 1996, Columbia, Maryland The Jet Engine Towards the end of […]


WAR CULTURE – Life of the Iron Duke

Marking the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo, a new display of 59 portraits at the National Portrait Gallery aims to reveal how the art world took on the political, military, and personal life of the Duke of Wellington. Goya’s famous view of Wellington entering Madrid, started in 1812 and modified twice to reflect […]


TOP FIVE: Aerial Battles

MHM looks at five of the costliest aerial battles in history. 5. AIR BATTLE OF SAINT-MIHIEL WHERE/WHEN: France, 12-16 September 1918 OUTCOME: Allied victory over Germany The Saint-Mihiel salient was a large bulge of the German frontline into France, which was formed in 1914 when German forces positioned themselves in preparation for an attack on Verdun. Although Verdun itself did not fall, the Germans continued to […]


Aerial Photography in WWI

  The original purpose of military aviation was reconnaissance. Initially, the pilot or observer simply noted down what he could see, and wrote up a report when he landed. During early 1915, the British followed the French in starting to use cameras to photograph the German front. In the earliest scout planes, an observer leant over the side holding a […]


The Dutch War of Independence

When the war began in 1566, Imperial Spain was the world’s greatest superpower. By the time it ended, in 1609, ‘the Spanish century’ was over.  The Dutch War of Independence was the defining conflict of its era. It secured the triumph of the Reformation in north-west Europe, and along the way reconfigured the geopolitics of the Continent. It also produced one […]


10 Principles of Sassanian Warfare

The Spah (‘military’) of the Sassanian Empire were Rome’s unbeaten rivals in the East. Here we look at 10 principles of Sassanian warfare.


War Culture – IWM Atrium

To celebrate the re-opening of the Imperial War Museum London, MHM explores the artefacts, old and new, housed in the museum’s famous atrium. Designed by Foster + Partners, the new space includes terraced galleries rising up either side with new curated displays chronologically taking visitors through the history of conflict in Britain from 1914 to […]


Battle of the River Plate: Ship Specifications

On 13 December 1939, while Britain was living through a ‘Phoney War’ at home, in the waters off the River Plate a vicious sea battle was being played out, pitting three small cruisers against the pride of Germany’s Navy: the pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee. The Battle of the River Plate has acquired, over the subsequent […]


Assassination: Sarajevo, 28 June 1914

Most readers of The Times had never heard of Sarajevo in June 1914. The assassination of a visiting Austrian royal by a Balkan nationalist fanatic therefore passed with little comment at British breakfast tables at the end of that month. Yet the two pistol shots fired into the back of a limousine by Gavrilo Princip […]

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