Map of the Battle of Maiwand, 27 July 1880: the decisive action of the Second Afghan War. General Burrows’ little army of 2,700 men was caught in the open by a force around seven times the size.

The Afghan warlord Ayub Khan played his advantages to the full, threatening the ranks of the British line, stretching it to breaking point, and blasting it with converging re from his longer, outer line.